What is an episiotomy simple definition?
An episiotomy is a cut (incision) through the area between your vaginal opening and your anus. This area is called the perineum. This procedure is done to make your vaginal opening larger for childbirth.
What causes episiotomy?
The rapid descent of the baby with vacuum or forceps delivery often causes laceration or tearing of the vaginal opening. In these cases, an episiotomy may prevent excessive tearing.
What is Apex in episiotomy?
The apex (highest point) of the episiotomy must be visualised and a suture put in at the apex. Dead space must be closed. The same opposing tissue must be brought together using the skin vaginal epithelium juncture as an anatomical landmark.
What are episiotomy contraindications?
Few contraindications to episiotomy exist. Episiotomy cannot be performed without consent of the patient. Relative contraindications to the procedure include inflammatory bowel disease and severe perineal malformations. Episiotomy should not be performed unless vaginal delivery is considered to be possible.
What is the management of episiotomy?
Episiotomy Care and Healing To reduce the pain of the incision, you can: Use pain relievers, such ibuprofen, medicated creams, and local anesthetic sprays. Take a warm, clean bath (wait at least 24 hours after giving birth) Apply ice packs immediately after birth.
What is a 3c degree tear?
If you are told that you have a 3c tear, it means that you have a tear involving the vaginal epithelium, perineum and anal sphincter muscles – with tearing of both the external and internal sphincters.
What is median episiotomy?
An episiotomy is an incision made in the perineum — the tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus — during childbirth. A midline (median) incision (shown at left) is done vertically. A mediolateral incision (shown at right) is done at an angle.
What are the degrees of episiotomy?
First degree: Involves the vaginal mucosa and perineal skin with no underlying tissue involvement. Second degree: Includes underlying subcutaneous tissue and perineal muscles. Third degree: The anal sphincter musculature is involved in the tear.
What is 4th degree tear?
Fourth-degree vaginal tears are the most severe. They extend through the anal sphincter and into the mucous membrane that lines the rectum (rectal mucosa). Fourth-degree tears usually require repair with anesthesia in an operating room — rather than the delivery room — and sometimes require more specialized repair.
What’s the difference between a 3a and 3b tear?
Third degree tears involve the external anal sphincter and can be further classified into 3a, 3b and 3c. Fourth degree tears are full-thickness tears through the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and the anal epithelium. 3a: less than 50% thickness of the EAS is torn. 3b: greater than 50% thickness of the EAS is torn.