What is paraxanthine?
Paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), a metabolite of caffeine, is a central nervous stimulant and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Paraxanthine functions as the antagonist of adenosine receptors A1 and A2a and has lower toxicity and lesser anxiogenic effects than caffeine.
What is theobromine made of?
Theobromine, also known as xantheose, is an alkaloid whose name is derived from the Theobroma family. It is the principal alkaloid of Theobroma cacao (cacao plant). It tastes bitter and has the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Does coffee contain theobromine?
Theobromine is consumed in cocoa and chocolate beverages and in various forms of chocolate-based foods. Theobromine is also present in small amounts in green coffee beans, tea and mate.
What is the classification of theobromine?
It is classified as a xanthine alkaloid (more specifically, a methylxanthine), others of which include theophylline and caffeine.
What foods contain Paraxanthine?
Methylxanthines are contained in several common dietary products, such as coffee, tea, soft and “energy” drinks, maté, cakes, candies, and chocolate. Caffeine is the most popular and consumed among the methylxanthines, therefore the vast majority of the research on these substances focuses on caffeine.
Is Paraxanthine toxic?
In in vitro cell culture studies, paraxanthine is reported to be less harmful than caffeine and the least harmful of the caffeine-derived metabolites in terms of hepatocyte toxicity.
Is theobromine an anti inflammatory?
The analog of theobromine, pentoxifylline, is effective in reducing inflammation and increasing the number of macrophages with wound repair anti-inflammatory properties (Sunil et al., 2014).
Which is healthier coffee or cocoa?
It’s healthier than traditional coffee Unlike coffee, which constricts blood vessels and raises your heart rate to increase blood flow, cacao is 99.9 percent caffeine-free. Instead of caffeine, cacao contains something called theobromine, which translates as “food of the gods” in Greek.
Does Coca Cola contain theobromine?
Possible effects of cola extracts were also found out. Cola contains catechins, theobromine, and tannins.
What enzyme breaks down caffeine?
Caffeine is almost completely metabolized in the body by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). This enzyme accounts for the metabolism of caffeine to its principal metabolite, paraxanthine .
How is Paraxanthine metabolized?
Production and metabolism Paraxanthine is also a major metabolite of caffeine in humans and other animals, such as mice. Shortly after ingestion, caffeine is metabolized into paraxanthine by hepatic cytochrome P450, which removes a methyl group from the N3 position of caffeine.
What hot drink is healthy?
8 healthy hot drinks
- Fresh ginger tea. Warming, spicy ginger tea has a long history of use for stomach ache and nausea.
- Fruit tea. If you fancy something fruity, flavoursome fruit tea is a good low-calorie option.
- Fresh mint tea.
- Hot chocolate.
- Hot lemon.
- Green tea.