Does Extrathyroidal extension mean cancer?
Extra-thyroidal extension: cancer that extends out from the thyroid into the neck muscles. If this is visible at the time of surgery, it is termed gross extra-thyroidal extension. If it is only seen by examining the cancer under the microscope, it is termed minimal extrathyroidal extension.
What is Extrathyroidal extension ultrasound?
Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) is an involvement of perithyroidal structures by direct extension from the primary thyroid cancer (1). ETE ranges from minor ETE identified by histological examination to gross ETE identified by preoperative or intraoperative evidence.
What does pt3a mean in thyroid cancer?
Background: International guidelines for the management of differentiated thyroid cancers are based on the 7th TNM classification: pT3 tumors are defined as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) measuring more than 4 cm in their greatest dimension that are limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroidal …
Can preoperative ultrasound predict Extrathyroidal extension of differentiated thyroid cancer?
Conclusions: Preoperative US is very specific and accurate in diagnosing gross ETE which impacts the extent of initial surgery for thyroid cancers.
What is vascular invasion?
Vascular invasion (VI), which is known as blood and/or lymph vessel invasion (LBVI), is the presence of tumor cells within the lumen of blood and/or lymph vessel, producing circulating tumor cells.
Where else can thyroid tissue be found?
Common sites of ectopic thyroid tissue in the head and neck include the base of the tongue, submandibular or sublingual sites (between the geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles), and prelaryngeal sites (in front of the larynx and above the hyoid bone).
What is a Stage 3 thyroid nodule?
Stage III: This stage describes a tumor larger than 4 cm but still contained in the thyroid (T3) with no spread to lymph nodes (N0) and no metastasis (M0). Or, any localized tumor (T1, T2, or T3) with spread to the central compartment of lymph nodes (N1a) but no distant spread (M0).
Does Lymphovascular invasion mean metastasis?
Lymphovascular invasion in patients with breast cancer can cause the cancer to spread in other parts of the body. This is because the cancer cells can spread anywhere in the body through the lymph or blood. The process is known as metastasis.
How serious is Lymphovascular invasion?
Several research studies have consistently reported that lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer is bad. It can lead to relapse of breast cancer after treatment and reduce the years of survival in patients with node-negative cancer.
What does primary tumor pT3a mean?
In the 2010 AJCC TNM staging criteria pT1 tumors are characterized as tumors 7 cm or less (pT1a 4 cm or less and pT1b greater than 4 to 7 cm), pT2 tumors are greater than 7 cm (pT2a greater than 7 to 10 cm and pT2b greater than 10 cm) and pT3a tumors with evidence of PN invasion, SF invasion, MVBI or RVI.