What is CR 51 release assay?
Chromium-51 (51Cr) release assays are commonly used for the precise and accurate quantification of cytotoxicity, particularly in the study of tumor and viral cytolysis. The assay is used to determine the number of lymphocytes produced in response to infection or drug treatment.
How does a chromium release assay work?
The chromium-release assay developed in 1968 is still the most commonly used method to measure cytotoxicity by T cells and by natural killer cells. Target cells are loaded in vitro with radioactive chromium and lysis is determined by measuring chromium in the supernatant released by dying cells.
How ADCC works?
A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes.
What activates ADCC?
Antibody-Based Cancer Therapy ADCC is triggered when FcR-bearing effector cells recognize a target cell that has been opsonized by antibodies.
How is ADCC measured?
ADCC, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The antibody-induced luciferase activity in the effector cell is quantified with a luminescence readout which is specific to the antibody and antigen-expressing target cells.
How is CR 51 used?
Chromium Cr-51 is an isotope of chromium that is observationally stable. When intravenously administered, it is used as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical agent to determine the red blood cell volume or mass, study the red blood cell survival time and evaluate blood loss 1.
Is Chromium-51 man made or natural?
Chromium-51 is a manmade isotope of chromium used in medicine as a radioisotopic tracer.
What is the difference between ADCC and Opsonization?
Opsonisation flags up pathogens for phagocytosis by phagocytes. ADCC is similar in that the pathogen is flagged up by an antibody, but the receptor cell is a cytotoxic cell that will release cytotoxic granules and kill the flagged cell.
Are neutrophils involved in ADCC?
Neutrophils also are known to carry out non-phagocytic ADCC which is thought to be driven by FcγRI and FcγRIIa on their surface (van der Kolk et al., 2002; Schneider-Merck et al., 2010).
What is Chromium-51 (51 Cr) release?
Chromium-51 (51 Cr) release assays are commonly used for the precise and accurate quantification of cytotoxicity, particularly in the study of tumor and viral cytolysis. The assay is used to determine the number of lymphocytes produced in response to infection or drug treatment. A brief overview of the assay principle is illustrated below.
What is the principle of the Chromium release assay?
Principle of the chromium release assay. The procedure can be divided into 3 main steps: 51 Cr labeling the target cell, release of the 51 Cr label by cytolysis, and detection of the released 51 Cr label. What do I need to run this assay?
What is the main drawback of 51 Cr release assays?
The main drawback of the 51 Cr release assays is the use of radioactive reagents. Moreover, measurement of target cell lysis by 51 Cr release does not provide mechanistic information on the fate of target cells, especially at the single cell level.
What causes SR of 51% in K-562 assay?
It is not caused by NK cells, but it can be due to the release of 51 Cr from intact cells and the release of 51 Cr from cells that spontaneously died during the time of the assay. In a typically 4-h- 51 Cr-release assay using K-562 or YAC-1 target cells, the SR is around 10%.