Can chromosomal translocations cause cancer?
Examples of such alterations include deletions, inversions and chromosomal translocations. Among these rearrangements chromosomal translocations are considered as the primary cause for many cancers including lymphoma, leukemia and some solid tumors.
Do cancer cells contain translocations?
Cancer genome sequencing has demonstrated that translocations that fuse sequence from different chromosomes are typical features of cancer cells. Translocations that create neomorphic fusion genes occur in both lymphoid malignancies and solid tumors.
What causes chromosomal translocations?
Translocations generally result from swapping of chromosomal arms between heterologous chromosomes and hence are reciprocal in nature (Figure 1) (8,9). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are prerequisites for such translocations, although little is known about their generation.
What is translocations in cancer?
A genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. Sometimes pieces from two different chromosomes will trade places with each other. Translocations may lead to medical problems such as leukemia, breast cancer, schizophrenia, muscular dystrophy, and Down syndrome.
Which are common examples of chromosomal translocated genes associated with lymphomas?
Examples include the activation of the MYC oncogene by t(8;14) in Burkitt lymphoma and of the SCL (TAL1) gene by t(1;14) or by rearrangement with the STIL gene on chromosome 1p32 in T-cell ALL.
When do chromosomal translocations occur?
Deletions, duplications, and inversions can occur when joining involves two broken ends on the same chromosome. Furthermore, translocations may occur when the broken ends of two nonhomologous chromosomes are joined together.
What do you understand by translocations?
Translocation means a change in location. It often refers to genetics, when part of a chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. Chromosomes are structures that carry genes, our units of heredity. When this type of translocation occurs, it can cause flaws in chromosomes.
What is an example of translocation chromosomal mutation?
This newly formed chromosome is called the translocation chromosome. The translocation in this example is between chromosomes 14 and 21. When a baby is born with this type of translocation chromosome in addition to one normal 14 and two normal 21 chromosomes, the baby will have Down syndrome.
What is an example of translocation mutation?
Examples of translocations on human chromosomes
|Translocation||Associated diseases||Fused genes/proteins|
|t(9;22)(q34;q11) Philadelphia chromosome||Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)||Abl1 gene on chromosome 9|
|t(15;17)(q22;q21)||Acute promyelocytic leukemia||PML protein on chromosome 15|
How do you detect chromosomal translocations?
There are multiple techniques to detect defining chromosomal translocations and other abnormalities, including conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), spectral karyotyping (SKY), DNA microarray analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and immunohistochemical (IHC) …
Which of the following lymphomas is characterized by 14 18 chromosomal translocation?
The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is characteristic of follicular lymphoma and a frequent abnormality in other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
What is oncogenic chromosomal translocation?
Chromosomal translocations are favored in neighboring chromosomes or genes in spatial proximity within the nucleus. Chromosomal translocations leading to cancer are generally via two ways, formation of oncogenic fusion protein or oncogene activation by a new promoter or enhancer.
What causes BCR-ABL translocation?
The BCR-ABL mutation happens when pieces of BCR and ABL genes break off and switch places. The piece of chromosome 9 that breaks off includes part of the ABL gene. When this piece moves over to chromosome 22, part of the ABL gene attaches to the BCR gene.
What is a translocation chromosomal mutation?
A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This type of rearrangement is described as balanced if no genetic material is gained or lost in the cell. If there is a gain or loss of genetic material, the translocation is described as unbalanced . Deletions.
What are the types of chromosomal translocation?
There are two main types of translocations: reciprocal and Robertsonian.
What is the pathophysiology of recurrent chromosomal translocation in sarcoma?
Each recurrent chromosomal translocation in a sarcoma introduces breaks within two cellular genes and results in the joining of portions of the two genes to create a novel chimeric or fusion gene (Figure 2).
What do we know about sarcoma genetics?
In the last two decades, the finding of specific acquired chromosomal alterations in sarcomas has helped in many cases to understand the underlying genetic basis of these tumors. These studies have allowed researchers to classify sarcomas into two main groups:
Are translocations consistent within a sarcoma category?
Multiple studies have indicated that the same translocation (or in some cases, one of a related group of translocations) occurs in the far majority of cases of a given sarcoma, and thus a translocation or group of translocations is consistent within a sarcoma category.
Which genes are involved in Ewing’s sarcoma translocation?
A variant Ewing’s sarcoma translocation (7;22) fuses the EWS gene to the ETS gene ETV1. Oncogene 1995;10:1229-34. 16.